礼失求诸野:勾良苗寨礼文化的意义交织

文化碎片论文 中国本土民族志论文 礼失求诸野论文
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本研究基于在湘西凤凰县勾良苗寨的人类学田野经历,探讨礼文化碎片的描述方式与意义交织空间,并从中国经典古籍与地方志文本中提供的话语视角来描述与阐释勾良村的礼仪空间、礼的传承者、葬礼与婚礼的行礼过程,形成一种能与从事中国文化研究的西方学者展开对话的学术探究,这样做也旨在探索一种中国本土民族志的书写方式。秉承儒家“礼失求诸野”的文化实践,本论文阐述了当今中国礼的失落,礼失去哪里求,怎么求,求到的礼文化碎片以什么语言呈现等问题。通过对勾良苗寨礼的细节呈现,并将经典文本中超越了表征语言言说方式的语言碎片编织在行礼的动作细节描述中,呈现了礼通过教化对处理亲疏关系、性别关系、家族关系、邻里关系、政府与百姓关系等方面的重要意义,同时也展现了礼在民间的传承脉络。并指出礼的话语变迁并不影响礼在生活世界中的行为实践,这种实践甚至在无意识层面进行。在中国本土民族志书写下对礼的现象学描述也超越了苗与汉、古与今、传统与现代、精英文化与民俗文化的二元对立表述,由此开放出一个阐释与反思的多元意义空间。本文在思维方式、价值判断、分析观察、文化书写等方面都是在一系列的跨文化关系里展开,表现在苗汉异同,西方学者的文化表述与中国实际文化生活,远古礼仪记载与当今礼文化实践等等。当今中华文化的复兴与中国文化的对外传播离不开对礼文化的深层理解,礼作为中国文化的肌理与中国文化身份的源泉,不仅仅应该从语言层面得到澄清,更需要在行动中来领悟与理解。
Abstract第6页
中文摘要第7-8页
内容提要第8-17页
Acknowledgements第17-27页
List of Figures第27-29页
List of Tables第29-30页
Chapter 1 Introduction第30-71页
    1.1 Staged li and negotiated Miao identity第36-41页
    1.2 Losing li in modern China第41-47页
        1.2.1 Li was termed as cannibalism in the early 20th Century第41页
        1.2.2 Li as feudalistic "Wind" still to be transformed in the 21~(st) Century第41-47页
    1.3 Searching for li in the revival of Confucianism第47-48页
    1.4 Li categorized as religion by the Western anthropologists第48-53页
    1.5 Li as a mode of thinking第53-55页
    1.6 Situating the study:representation of Miao ritual in West Hunan第55-66页
        1.6.1 Writing Miao ritual in a Confucian perspective in 1758第55-56页
        1.6.2 Visual representation of Miao ritual in 1797第56-58页
        1.6.3 An ethnographic report in 1940第58-62页
        1.6.4 Miao ritual as religion and expression of identity第62-63页
        1.6.5 Modern Chinese works on Miao ritual第63-66页
    1.7 Structure of the thesis第66-71页
Chapter 2 Entering the Field第71-97页
    2.1 To be gossiped is to be accepted第72-78页
    2.2 Doing fieldwork with my father第78-90页
        2.2.1 Exchanging cigarettes第78-79页
        2.2.2 Drinking alcohol第79-81页
        2.2.3 A proud bowl第81-82页
        2.2.4 Meeting my Miao Gandie and Ganma第82-84页
        2.2.5 "Dragon and Phoenix Presenting Auspicious Omen"第84-87页
        2.2.6 Fanning the odor away第87页
        2.2.7 An explosion of cultural shock第87-89页
        2.2.8 Learning li from the fieldwork第89-90页
    2.3 Attending funerals第90-94页
    2.4 Attending a "poor" girl's wedding第94-97页
Chapter 3 Developing Indigenous Chinese Ethnography第97-138页
    3.1 Dilemma in ethnography第97-102页
    3.2 Chinese historiography as proto-ethnography第102-103页
    3.3 Weaving authentic cultural fragments第103-111页
    3.4 Narrative as heteroglossia dialogue第111-113页
    3.5 In-depth descriptions of actions in Shiji第113-121页
    3.6 Thick description in practices:five cases第121-133页
    3.7 Ancient texts as a discourse to enlighten第133-137页
    3.8 Coda第137-138页
Chapter 4 Ritual Space第138-184页
    4.1 The land and the people in Gouliang第140-144页
    4.2 Local meanings in naming Gouliang第144-148页
    4.3 Phoenix Hill and cat blood第148-153页
    4.4 Domestic space as a loom第153-156页
    4.5 Multiple meanings of tang第156-181页
        4.5.1 Space for traditional Chinese learning第159-165页
        4.5.2 Sacred space for worshipping ancestors第165-172页
        4.5.3 Mourning space第172-176页
        4.5.4 Image bricolages第176-177页
        4.5.5 Reporting to the ancestors in wedding第177-179页
        4.5.6 Washing feet in tang第179-181页
    4.6 Coda第181-184页
Chapter 5 Ritual Specialists第184-212页
    5.1 Tradition of wizard culture第185-188页
    5.2 Discursive division of Miao Ritualists and Han Ritualists第188-195页
    5.3 The inherited ritual altar第195-203页
    5.4 Ritualist in death ritual第203-205页
    5.5 Ritualist Wu Zhangquan:loose belief and careful performance第205-209页
    5.6 Ritualist Wu Jinzhi:observation of the filial piety第209-211页
    5.7 Coda第211-212页
Chapter 6 The Extreme Expression of Grief and Sorrow: Death Ritual第212-302页
    6.1 Miao death ritual noted as features of ethnic identity第213-215页
    6.2 Cultural hybridization in funeral rites第215-218页
    6.3 Processes of funeral performance第218-260页
        6.3.1 The first day第218-239页
        6.3.2 The second day第239-247页
        6.3.3 The third day第247-260页
    6.4 Ritual performance of Ten Months' Pregnancy第260-279页
        6.4.1 Textual analysis of Ten Months' Pregnancy第261-267页
        6.4.2 In-depth description of the perf-ormances第267-279页
    6.5 Mouming clothes第279-299页
        6.5.1 Texture of mourning clothes in the perspective of Yili第282-287页
        6.5.2 Hair stick,fillet,headdress,and mourning cane第287-299页
    6.6 Coda第299-302页
Chapter 7 Yang Goes out to Bring in Yin:Wedding Ritual第302-379页
    7.1 The first day:the day Yang went out to bring Yin in第311-347页
        7.1.1 Receiving the Bride(jie qin接亲)第311-317页
        7.1.2 Blockings(ka ge 卡歌)第317-329页
        7.1.3 Setting feast for the groom(she xu xi 设婿席)第329-334页
        7.1.4 Sharing chicken head(fen ji tou分鸡头)第334-336页
        7.1.5 Stepping out of Mother's Home(chu niang fang出娘房)第336-347页
    7.2 The second day:the bride joined the groom's family第347-365页
        7.2.1 The bride entered the groom's door(jin fu men 进夫门)第347-351页
        7.2.2 Welcoming the guests in the tang(tang wu ying ke 堂屋迎客)第351-354页
        7.2.3 Returning to the bride's natal home(hui men回门)第354-357页
        7.2.4 Accompanying the daughter to her husband's home(pei nu hui fu jia 陪女回夫家)第357-361页
        7.2.5 Set happy feast(she xi yan 设喜宴)第361-364页
        7.2.6 Sing songs for the whole nioht(zuo ye chang miao ge 坐夜唱苗歌)第364-365页
    7.3 The third day:paying bride's kinsmen and sending guests off第365-376页
        7.3.1 Paying the money for mother's milk(gei nai qian 给奶钱)第365-372页
        7.3.2 Seeing the guests off(san ke 散客)第372-376页
    7.4 Coda第376-379页
Chapter 8 Conclusion:Searching for the Confucian Tradition in the Field第379-395页
    8.1 Li and Yue tradition in Miao's life第380-385页
    8.2 Searching for the lost rituals in the field第385-389页
    8.3 Wind and ritual:Viewing as transformative power第389-392页
    8.4 Reflections第392-395页
Appendices第395-506页
References第506-519页
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